Background: Ureteroscopy is frequently used for small renal and ureteral calculi. Rarely cases have been reported of retained ureteroscopes as a complication. With the limited number of cases, it is important to add these to the literature to mitigate the future risk from this complication that can lead to significant morbidity. We present our unique experience with a retained ureteroscope requiring open surgical intervention.

Case Presentation: Our case is a 65-year-old female undergoing ureteroscopy for a 2 cm right ureteropelvic junction obstructing stone. After laser lithotripsy, there was significant buildup of stone debris distally along the ureteroscope. Conservative measures failed to remove the ureteroscope, so an open surgical approach was taken. The ureteroscope was removed, and a ureteral reimplant was performed. Postoperative CT shows residual hydronephrosis, but there is no obstruction seen on renal Lasix scan.

Conclusions: This is a rare, but real, complication that urologists must be aware of. Preventive measures with pre-stenting early intraoperative stenting, using a ureteral access sheath, or using a single-use flexible ureteroscope could be considered especially when treating larger stones endoscopically.